Wednesday 19 June 2019

Boudicca and the Iceni

This post is about the Iceni of Norfolk and the famous Boudicca of legend, the warrior-queen who challenged the might of the Romans. There is still a great deal of controversy over whether the Iceni were Celtic, since new ideas have arisen that regard them as Germanic. It does appear that they had very close links to the Belgic Tribes of Belgica-Northern Gaul. a fact borne out by the find of the Fakenham Hoard in 2015. 

The problem here is compounded when we study the figure of Boudicca whose legend comes down to us through Tacitus and Dio Cassius, the latter over one hundred years after the events. The name 'Boudicca' is said to stem from the Welsh Buddug meaning 'victory' but in researching this it seems that this could have been a Victorian fantasy in honour of 'Queen Victoria' who had the same title - or so it seems. The Welsh name 'Buddug' is pronounced 'Bithig', nothing like Boudicca. Dio Cassius uses the name 'Buduica' (*) and the later 'Boudicea' seems to be a corruption. She is described as having 'red hair' when in fact the Greco-Roman word translates as 'yellowish', i.e. blonde. The two accounts have fanciful 'speeches' attributed to her, both with nothing in common with the other. And why was a 'Goddess of Victory' called by the name Andraste which supposedly means 'Victory', but in what tongue? 

(*) Buduica, which would have been spelled Budvica by the Romans can be found in Lusitania, now the area of Portugal, where three inscriptions of BODVICA have been found. If so Dio Cassius may well have come across this name and thus linked the two together for some reason. 

Even today the Welsh have claimed Boudicca as one of their own, and yet not one mention of her appears in any of the Welsh annals, the Historia Brittonum, Mabinogian or History of the Kings of Britain. Surely, if she were a Celtic Queen of Welsh origins she would have had some kind of mention in their own historical works? 

The key seems to be the link with the Belgae, many of whose tribes were Germanic. The Fakenham Hoard were a mixture of local work with half coming from 'Belgic Gaul' through minting by the Ambiani who were of the Belgae, thought to have originated in Germania. The hoard is actually termed the "Wolf Hoard" due to the recurrent images of the wolf on the coins. Can we really see the fact that the Wolf Totem of the 'later' Wuffingas was the very same image used by earlier tribes in the very same area? 

The name ECENI or ECEN appears upon coins of the Iceni, and appears to mean 'Oaks'; since Norfolk is a region well known for its oaks this is not surprising. If so the name is Germanic -

ec/ac = oak

ecen = oaks

One of the rulers of the Iceni was Ecen(os) who reigned from 10 - 43 CE; his name means 'oak' or perhaps 'strength' or 'mighty' which derives from this word as an image. 

Some see these names as referring to the 'horse' (equine) since the coins bear the images of the Solar-Horse. However, many coins minted in North-West Europe at this time were based upon those of Philip of Macedonia which bore the horse too. And we have the name 'Icknield Way' which is one of the Royal Roads of Britain and which was originally Icenhilde Weg in Old English, the word icen  (ecen) being 'oaks', widened to 'strength' or 'mighty', and hilde being the Old English 'battle'. We may even have the clue to where the last battle fought by Boudicca was fought, since this name may be related to this through 'oak' and 'battle'. There was a large wooded area behind the Eceni Warriors. If so then 'Ecen' would refer to the Iceni! This is even more pronounced when we consider that the Germanic name 'Hilde' is female which could hint at the Warrior-Queen herself. Icen-hilde would thus mean 'Iceni Battle-Maiden'. 

However, since we find the Sutton Hoo grave of a horse-warrior then we cannot altogether rule out the horse as being important not only to the Wuffingas, but also to the Iceni, whom they may well have taken rulership over as an elite after the Roman power was gone. Certainly the Solar Wheel and the Swastika were used on the coins together with the Solar-Horse; there is also the 'Eye of Woden' on some of the coins, and the links to the coins of another Germano-Belgic Tribe, the Suessiones, which bears the image of Woden being swallowed by the Fenris Wolf. 

There is a Germanic Root *bheudh which means 'to make aware' and is no doubt the equivalent of the root-name for 'Buddha' which means 'The Awakened One'. From the Germanic Root *bheudh- we get the English beoden meaning 'to proclaim' and bodian meaning 'to announce'. It is thus not out of the question that the name 'Boudicca' is Germanic in origin. The Welsh Buddug is the closest in spelling but not in sound. One fanciful rendering of the name is 'Bowed-Wicca' but this falls down in that 'wicca' is the male version whilst the female is 'wicce'. 

Monday 10 June 2019

The Goths

The Goths seem to have been perhaps the most ancient of Germanic Peoples, even though they seem to have faded out of the history books whereas other Germanic Tribes are still remembered. Like the Saxons we find various ancient tribes with names that appear to be the same or so similar as to suggest a close kinship. What suggests something very powerful about the Goths is their name, which suggests 'God' (Gott) or 'Good', meaning 'The Folk of God' or 'The Good Folk'. The Goths are also named after Gaut which is a name of Woden; this is often seen to have roots in 'to pour' (as in an offering) but seems to have meant something different originally. The following are ancient peoples whose name may be related to the Goths -

The Getae.

The Massagetae - 'Great Getae'. Thyssagetae - 'Little Getae'.

The Geats.

The Jutes.

The Gotar.

The Gautar.

The Jats/Jits - The Masagetae were also called 'Great Jats' or 'Great Jits'. The Jats were closely allied to the Sacae (Saxons). The Encyclopaedia Britannica says that the Jats were identified with the Getae of Herodotus. The Collins Encyclopaedia says that the Jats descended from the Saka or Scythians, and moved into India between the Second Century BCE and 5th Century CE. 

I am going to look here at the Jats who moved into India; could these have been of the same peoples as the Jutes, and thus the Goths? Colonel Sleeman, an Indian Political Officer, wrote to Dalip Singh, a Jat and last king of the Sikh Kingdom - "I see you are going to live in Kent. You will be among your own people there, for you are a Jat and the men of Kent are Jutes from Jutland." He also wrote - "The Jat Sikhs mighty & curled of beard, kin perhaps to the men of Kent, the Jutes of Jutland." 

It is also strange how the name of a section of the Jats were called Asiaghgotra (Asiagh-Gotra) where 'asiagh' means 'sword', thus, like the Saxons these people being 'People of the Sword'. We should also recall the name 'Gauthama' which is that of the original Buddha, who was 'Sage of the Sakyas', a name too close to 'Saxons' to be a coincidence. We have seen how the Jats were closely allied to the Sacae. 

History shows us on so many occasions how Germanic Tribes of very close kinship tend to move together in a certain area at a certain time, and this is repeated in other areas at very different times. We can perhaps trace the roots of these various Germanic Tribes back to the time of At-al-land; after this land partially sank in a great cataclysm these peoples would have moved into various different areas of the world, especially if the lands of the North were enveloped in ice-sheets. These were the Folk-Wanderings mentioned by various historians; it is certain that many of these peoples who remained in a purer state moved back into Northern Europe in later times. 

We need to consider that the word-sounds we use today may not be quite as they were in ancient times, and so names which appear to be totally different may have been much nearer to each other then. The term 'Jute' we say with a 'hard j' as in 'jut'; but we also today say 'Jesus' with the same sound, and yet this was also spelled 'Iesus' with a different sound. Again, there is a Gotaland in Sweden which is sounded Yotaland which again shows sound-differences between different tribes and nations. 

Of course, the word Joten or Jotun could also be seen in this light, and maybe we should include this in the argument here. We must recall that there were 'Light Joten' and 'Dark Joten' and there was a great difference between these two groups of 'Giants'. We have shown before how some scholars have mixed up the 'Jutes' with the 'Eoten' in Beowulf. 

In the last article about Hengest we saw how he was associated with a famous sword, the Sword of AEtla, and we should thus recognise the significance of this in regard to the Goths -

Hengest of the Jutes (or Saxons) - Sword.

The Saxons - Sons of the Sword.

The Jats - 'Sword-Goths'. (Reflected today in the fact that the Sikhs wear a ceremonial sword.)

If we are to believe the usual rendering of the runic letters 'Iggws of the Goths' then the Goths were Ingwaiones - 'Friends of Ing'. Ing is often seen as a 'Sword-God' and Ingui-Frey certainly had a famous sword which he gave away in his wooing of Gerda. 

Our word 'god' seems to stem from a Proto-Germanic *guthan and PIE *ghut meaning 'that which is invoked'; also a Root *gheu meaning 'to call' or 'to invoke'. There are also links to various word-roots meaning 'to pour' as in an offering. The Langobards called Woden Godan or Guodan, although the 'g' may originally have been silent. 

Added June 19th after a piece sent to me by CE Reed -

There is also another people linked to the Goths whose name is usually Gutians; the name seems to stem from a root meaning 'warrior'. The list below of tribes with similar names is an updated version -








"The blonde race of the Guti' we are told, also linked to the Amorites (Mor/Mur). The Gutians overthrew the Semitic Akkadians in Sumeria and were responsible for the regeneration of Sumeria. Gudea (2142 - 2122 BCE) ruled Ur on behalf of the Gutian Kings. The language of the Gutians seems to have been akin to Tocharian. It is interesting to note that the Tocharians also seem to have called themselves the Tugri which is close to the original name of the Germans - Tungri. The Tugri lived near to the borders of China. 

Of interest to us is the name of the last Gutian King (or thought to be Gutian by the name he has) which was Tirigan. This is, in fact, linked to the Tir Rune as Waddell pointed out. The word 'Tir' in Old Persian means 'arrow' and this is exactly how the Tir-Rune is shaped, a spear or arrow. 

The Raven and the Wolf

This post stems from a piece sent to me which was posted on a website called Gnostic-Warrior and is also based upon a piece in Wikipedia, the latter not always being a reliable source but I have cross-checked some points from other sites. The post is based upon an Indo-European tribe called the Wusun who lived in North-West China, at one time around the area of the Tarim Basin, which may connect them to the mummified bodies found in this area. What interests me most is the symbolism attached to this tribe, and not so much its history which is rather vague.

The name Wusun stems from -

wu - 'crow' or 'raven'.

sun - 'grandson' or 'descendant'. 

Thus 'Descendants of the Raven'. 

The above is the flag of the Tegeingl which shows four sea-birds, but which originally seems to have been that of the crow or raven, as can be seen in the Coat of Arms below -

The Tegeingl or 'Fair Angles' are thus associated with the Raven or the Crow, as shown in the coat-of-arms and the flag of Tegeingl. 

Around 173 BCE the Yuezhi Tribe attacked the Wusun and slew their king, Nandoumi. A legend says that Nandoumi's infant son Liejiaomi was left out in the wild but survived the ordeal by being suckled by a She-Wolf and fed meat by a Raven. The Raven and the Wolf are both totems of this tribe. Leijiaomi was considered to be a supernatural being due to the legend, and thus invincible in battle. The Wusun, the Sai (Saka) and the Yuezhi occupied the area of Zhetysu and Dzungaria and the Sai and Yuezhi have been identified as Tocharians. The Saka are also seen as Iranians. The Wusun were the main suppliers of horses to the Han Dynasty of China - they were horsemen of the Steppes. Soviet archaeologists recognised the skulls of the Wusun to be Caucasian.

The principle activity of the Wusun was cattle-raiding which is a typical Indo-European trait recorded in myth and legend. There are various different tribal groups associated with the Wusun -

Ashina - Tribe of the Wolf. Also associated with the Raven.

The Saka/Sai.

The Hepthalites who occupied Tokharistan which is present day Afghanistan.

The Issedones. 

The name 'Wusun' seems to have been originally spoken as something like "Asman" this being from the Iranian asman meaning 'sky', the Iranian God Asman being 'the highest heaven'. 

The term Sai used by the Chinese for Saka is important, since there are indeed two variations of the name 'Saxon' -

  • Saxon/Sachsen used by the English and Germans.
  • Seis/Sassanach used by the Welsh-Scots.

These variations come out as 'Saka' and 'Sai' which is rather too much of a coincidence. Both Saxons and Vikings have also been found using what is termed a 'pointy-hat' which is a hallmark of the Saka and other tribes connected to them - the Phrygian Hat as it is sometimes called. The Saka Tigraxauda were the 'Saka with pointy-hats' and the Saka Haumavarga were the 'Haoma-drinking Saka'; the word 'varga' is the same as 'warg' meaning 'wolf'. In the Chinese Book of Han the valley of the Ili River and Chu River was called 'The Land of the Sai'. 

The title of kingship over the Wusun was Kunmi which is a word related to 'Khan' and to 'Kon' and thus to the Ken-Rune. There was also a greater figure called the 'Great Kunmi' which is the 'Great Khan' which was the title 'Genghis Khan'. 

In regard to the Ashina their name seems to stem from a root meaning 'blue' or 'dark' (asna (Tocharian) is 'blue' or 'dark'). The name also invokes the Ashvins/Asvins/Aswins who were the 'Horse Twins of the Vedas. The idea of 'blue' has been suggested as linked to the 'blue sky' but the blue-dark link may be to the Raven or Crow. Genghis Khan was of the Tribe of the Blue Wolf and worshipped the Sky-God Tengri whose name is  very much like that of the Tungri who were the original Germans. Genghis Khan may not have been mongoloid as has been mentioned in a previous post. 

The Hepthalites occupied Tocharistan and captured parts of the Tarim Basin; they seem to have called themselves Ebodala (Eb-Odala) which is an interesting name. 

The North-West European mummified bodies found in the Tarim Basin area date back as early as 2000 BCE some 4000 years ago. They were found to be Haplogroup R1a (Y-DNA) which can be found in many different areas of the world due to the Folk-Wanderings. 

Occult Legend tells of certain distinct civilisations -

  • Hyperborea - This was a 'vanished' island at the Far North which 'sank' (or was moved by the Gods into a different dimension) after a mighty catastrophe.
  • At-al-land - This was a vast North-West European Continent much of which sank after another catastrophe, leaving parts around the Dogger Bank which finally sank beneath the waves.
  • The Gobi - Legend has it that after the sinking of At-al-land tribes moved in different directions and a great civilisation was built in the area now known as the Gobi Desert. This civilisation was once more destroyed by a massive catastrophe. 
  • The Aryans occupied areas of Iran (Aryania), India and also areas around Mongolia and China, as well as Tibet. 

In Tolkien's Lord of the Rings the Rohirrim are clearly based upon the Anglo-Saxons, but they are also portrayed as being 'horsemen'. Hengest and Horsa are also seen as 'horsemen' and they are clearly akin to the Vedic Ashwins - the 'Horse Twins'. The Yr-Rune is that of the 'Yew-Bow' which the rune-poem associates with the use of the bow on horseback, something missing from historical records about the English. We are told that the English did not use cavalry at Hastings. Again, in one of the burials at Sutton Hoo, seemingly that of an aethlinga, the warrior-figure is buried with his horse. Tolkien traces the Rohirrim back to their origins as Numenoreans, just like the Kings of Gondor. The name 'Rohan' is phonetically similar to 'rowan' and 'rune'. 

Updated 19th June 2017.

The legend related to Leijiaomi is in fact far closer to that of Romulus and Remus than I suggested. What is usually overlooked in the legend of Romulus and Remus is that they were indeed left drifting in the waters, found and suckled by a She-Wolf, but they were also fed by a woodpecker. So they were fed by a bird, the very same symbolism as that of the Raven feeding Leijiaomi! Thus the Raven and the Wolf are symbols that we may well come across again in our studies. Both the Wusun and the Ashina Tribe had this legend, which was repeated in that of Romulus and Remus. 

The "Great War' of the Mahabharata was fought between the Pandavas and the Koravas, the latter being the 'People of the Raven'. 

Tuesday 4 June 2019

Hengest - The Archetype

The legend of Hengest and Horsa landing in three ships is a typical Archetypal Myth. Like Romulus and Remus, Castor and Pollux, and other similar archetypes they ride White Horses and are the founders of a new nation. Their names mean 'stallion' and 'horse' referring to their role as the Horse Twins. Interestingly, in Frisian Lore they have a sister named 'Swan' which links them to the Swan and to Swan-Lore. 

I have shown how Hengest wielded the sword Hunlafing Hildeleoman (Hun-Bequest Battle-Flame) which is the 'Sword of AEtla' (Attila the Hun). Attila the Hun was the 'Scourge of God' who challenged the mighty of Roman Christianity which threatened the Old Ways with its growing might. It thus seems logical to assume that the conquest of England by Hengest was no mere 'coincidence', and that he came here to these islands to fulfil his Wyrd. AEtla's uncle was named Octha and Hengest's son was named Octa - is this really a coincidence, or did Hengest recognise the nature of his 'Fate'?

Christianity, in whatever form it took here, was growing rapidly in these islands, and threatening the Old Gods of our Folk. We have shown clearly that many of the tribes here in England were Germanic, and thus they had kinfolk in Germania and Scandinavia. It seems logical to assume that these people would come to the aid of their kinfolk here in England. Of course, there is more to this since the end result was the creation of an English Nation. 

The Legend of Herman or Arminius revolves around a Germanic Chieftain who united some of the tribes into a confederation that halted the advance of the Roman Legions into Germania. Arminius has always been depicted wielding a sword, and from some of the names of his kin he could possibly have been linked to the Wolsunga Tribe. We cannot be certain, but from most depictions he is seen wielding a Sword. His challenge to Rome was followed some centuries later by that of AEtla the Hun. 

The legends surrounding AEtla the Hun include many sagas of Norse Mythology and Germanic Mythology where he is seen a a mighty king and conquerer. He should be seen in the light of the 'World Conquerer', of the same kind as Ghengis Khan and Alexandra the Great, as well as other great figures whose lives bear such a similarity. At one of his first battles he appeared bearing an ancient Iron Sword which he claimed to the the 'God of War' of their Ancestors. With this he wielded the Spirit of Death in battle. A Roman, Priscus, recorded how he got the sword and the influence it had over the mind of the Barbarian Tribes who followed AEtla. He took upon himself the following -

"Attila, Descendent of the Great Nimrod. Nurtured in Engeddi. By the Grace of God, King of the Huns, the Goths, the Danes and the Medes. The Dread of the World."

Nimrod was the ancient 'Great Hunter' and King of Babylon; 'Nurtured in Engeddi' refers to the Biblical Prophecy in Revelation where a 'woman clothed with the Sun and the Moon beneath her feet' brings forth a 'man-child' who would 'rule the nations with a rod of iron' and would oppose the Red Dragon which had 'seven heads and ten horns', the latter being seen by many as the Roman Empire. 

Like Romulus who slew his brother Remus, AEtla slew his brother Bleda to found an empire that would attempt to destroy the power of Rome. The power that creates also destroys. He arose in the twelve-hundredth year after the foundation of Rome, and the ancient prophecies stated that Rome would last for twelve-hundred years! This prophecy was that of the twelve vultures that appeared to Romulus. 

That Hengest should wield the 'Sword of AEtla' and thus take upon himself the 'Wyrd of AEtla' is thus quite feasible. When we read some Welsh Chronicles we find that the battles between the Heathen English Tribes and the Christian Britons often ended with the Heathen English sacking the Christian Churches. In these tales King Arthur is merely a Welsh Chieftain whose banner bore the 'Virgin Mary' and who thus represented the Christian Britons. Of course, the common man amongst the Germanic Tribes would never have known the forces behind such figures as Hengest, and would have been urged on by the thought of plunder and wealth, this being the driving-force in all ages. 

The name 'Hengest' seems akin to the 'Geist of Ing' ('Eng-Geist') so this figure is that of Ingwe incarnated at this time in order to fulfil a specific destiny, and that is to become 'World-Ruler' as it states in Beowulf (I have covered this before).